Mapping Diversity

Mapping Diversity is a platform for discovering key facts about diversity and representation in street names across Europe, and to spark a debate about who is missing from our urban spaces.

We looked at the names of 155,468 streets across 32 major European cities, located in 19 different countries. More than 90% of the streets named after individuals are dedicated to white men. Where did all the other inhabitants of Europe end up? The lack of diversity in toponymy speaks volumes about our past and contributes to shaping Europe’s present and future.

Browse by country

Austria (1)
Belgium (1)
Croatia (1)
Czechia (1)
Denmark (1)
France (2)
Germany (2)
Greece (1)
Hungary (2)
Moldova (1)
Norway (1)
Portugal (1)
Romania (2)
Sweden (1)
Switzerland (1)
Ukraine (1)

Who is honored by our streets?

Examining the lack of representation in street names across Europe

Take a stroll through any major European city and you'll notice a trend in the names of its streets. They typically honour the same type of people: white men who were either wealthy, influential, or both. It's a subtle yet powerful reminder of who our society values, or has valued, and who it doesn't. This platform explores the lack of diversity in the street names of 32 cities from 19 different European countries, monitoring a total of 56,852 streets named after an individual. The overall result already hints at the problem: only 9% of these are named after a woman, that is 5,247.

The numbers

Women
5,247 streets
9.2%
Men
51,305 streets
90.2%
Non-Binary/Uncertain
300 streets
0.5%
Created by mappingdiversity.eu

Behind these numbers there is broad variability between cities, although none come close to any kind of gender equality in street names. Stockholm tops the ranking with 19.5% of its streets named after women, followed by Madrid (18.7%) and Sevilla (17.2%). Debrecen, with 2.7%, has the lowest share of streets honouring women, at least among the cities monitored so far. It sits at the bottom of the ranking, preceded by Prague (4.3%) and Athens (4.5%).

Share of streets named after a woman out of the streets dedicated to individuals

Athens
4.5%
Barcelona
15.7%
Berlin
12.1%
Brussels
8.0%
Bucharest
5.6%
Budapest
7.0%
Chisinau
7.1%
Copenhagen
13.4%
Debrecen
2.7%
Gdansk
6.2%
Genoa
8.2%
Katowice
6.2%
Krakow
6.6%
Kyiv
6.3%
Lisbon
10.5%
Lodz
8.4%
Lyon
8.5%
Madrid
18.7%
Milan
5.0%
München
11.6%
Oslo
12.5%
Palermo
8.1%
Paris
8.6%
Prague
4.3%
Rome
7.0%
Sevilla
17.2%
Stockholm
19.5%
Turin
5.3%
Vienna
9.8%
Warsaw
8.8%
Wroclaw
7.8%
Zagreb
5.6%
Created by mappingdiversity.eu

Lack of diversity in street names speaks of our past, but talks to our future

The preponderance of male figures in our streets is not only evidence of a historical and cultural fact, but also a force, subliminal but constant, that contributes to perpetuating the marginalization of female contributions in history, art, culture, or the sciences. Women honoured by European street names may be few and far between, but who are they? What are the characteristics of those who are visible, and who remains invisible?

Women's legacies in European cities

Overall, the 32 different cities under consideration honour 3,088 unique women from a variety of backgrounds. The Virgin Mary is the most frequent name, with 369 street dedications, in 26 of the 32 cities. For comparison, the most popular man, Peter, has 52 street dedications. The second most common female street name is also religious: Saint Anne, after whom 37 streets in 20 different cities are named.

The most popular women figures

Virgin Mary
Saint Anne
Marie Curie
Mary Magdalene
Teresa of Ávila
Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Barbara
Clare of Assisi
Martha
Saint Lucy
Helena Augusta
Margaret the Virgin
Margherita of Savoy
Eulalia of Barcelona
Diana
Saint Cecilia
Stefania Sempołowska
Saint Ursula
Mother Teresa
Elizabeth

While Virgin Mary and Saint Anne are the most frequent women's names in the cities surveyed, the majority of streets named after a woman do not honour a religious person. Instead, about half of such streets are named after women who made significant contributions in the field of culture, science and arts, with writer being the most common profession. However, there are differences between cities, particularly with respect to the prevalence of religious names.

Percentage of streets honouring men and women by field

Created by mappingdiversity.eu

Geographically, European cities tend to honour women who... well, unsurprisingly were born in Europe! There are however a few exceptions to this trend, for example in the case of biblical and religious figures.

Birth places of women with street dedications

© Map data from OpenStreetMap
Created by mappingdiversity.eu

The majority of women with a street dedication belong to late modern history, mostly to the 19th and 20th century. The most recent figure with street dedications in multiple countries is Anna Politkovskaya, the Russian journalist and activist murdered in 2006, with streets named after her in Prague, Paris, and Rome.

Number of individuals who were alive per year (men / women)

Created by mappingdiversity.eu

While changing street names alone may not be sufficient for creating a more equitable society, we cannot overlook the stereotypes and collective perceptions that are reinforced when 90.2% of street names are dedicated to men. Below you find the list of all the women with a street dedication in the 32 monitored cities. Who are the women who remain largely invisible in our public spaces?

Who were these women?

Aagot Tveter
Aasta Hansteen
Abadessa Olzet
Abel Cathrine von der Wisch
Abella
Acca Larentia
Ada Christen
Ada Gobetti
Ada Lovelace
Ada Negri
Ada Nilsson
Ada Sari
Adela
Adela Balboa y Gómez
Adelaide Aglietta
Adelaide Cabete cuuuu
Adelaide Cairoli
Adelaide Coari
Adelaide Félix
Adelaide Ristori
Adelaide del Vasto
Adelaide of Burgundy
Adele Bei
Adele Bloch-Bauer
Adele Hartmann
Adele Jellinek
Adele Maria Jemolo
Adele Martignoni
Adele Sandrock
Adele Schreiber
Adele Worm
Adele Zoagli
Adelheid Krahmer
Adelheid Popp
Adelheid von Hedemann
Adelheid von Poninska
Adelina Abranches
Adelina Patti
Adelmunda Brandl
Adina Mandlová
Adriana de Vecchi
Adrienne Avril de Sainte-Croix
Adrienne Gessner
Adrienne Lecouvreur
Adèle Clémence de Strooper
Adélaïde Perrin
Aegle
Aelia Sabina
Agariste
Agatha Bârsescu
Agatha Christie
Agatha of Sicily
Agathe Backer Grøndahl
Aglaea
Aglaonike
Agnes Bernauer
Agnes Fink
Agnes Hacker
Agnes Henningsen
Agnes Kraus
Agnes Kunze
Agnes Lagerstedt
Agnes Miegel
Agnes Neuhaus
Agnes Pockels
Agnes Primocic
Agnes Straub
Agnes Thorsen
Agnes Wabnitz
Agnes of Bohemia
Agnes of Germany
Agnes of Rome
Agnes von Zahn-Harnack
Agnesa Roșca
Agnetha Fältskog
Agustina de Aragón
Aimée Millot
Aino
Akarova
Alba Gulì
Alba de Céspedes y Bertini
Albertine Amalie Louise Schön
Albina of Caesarea
Alcestis
Alcyone
Alda Costa
Alda Merini
Aldona of Lithuania
Aleksandra Gabrysiak
Aleksandra Śląska
Alena Santarová
Alessandra Macinghi
Alessandrina Ravizza
Alex Wedding
Alexandra Mikhailovna Kulish
Alexandrine Lepeu
Alfonsina Strada
Alice Archenhold
Alice Berend
Alice Domon
Alice Guy-Blaché
Alice Hirsch
Alice Lyttkens
Alice Milliat
Alice Pestana
Alice Salomon
Alice de Castonier
Alida Valli
Alina Pienkowska
Alina Szapocznikow
Alina Ślesińska
Alla Horska
Alla Tarasova
Alma Johanna Koenig
Alma Rosé
Alma Seidler
Alma Siedhoff-Buscher
Alva Myrdal
Alyssa Julya Smith
Amalberga of Maubeuge
Amalia Bettini
Amalia Domingo Soler
Amalia Guglielminetti
Amalia Lindegren
Amalia Loring y Heredia
Amalia Torrijos Rodríguez
Amalia of Oldenburg
Amalie Auguste of Bavaria
Amalie Haizinger
Amalie Hohenester
Amalie Materna
Amalie Seidel
Amalie Skram
Amanda Stassart
Amandine Giraud
Amelia Camboni
Amelia Earhart
Amelia Piccinini
Amelia Pinto
Amelia of Girona
Amelie Beese
Amicie Piou
Amália Rodrigues
Amélia Rey Colaço
Amélie Gomand
Amélie Pihan de Laforest
Amélie of Orléans
América Martínez Serrano
Ana Barbu
Ana Mariscal
Ana María Martínez Sagi
Ana María Matute
Ana Orantes
Ana Racoviţă-Davila
Ana de Castro Osório
Ana de Jesús
Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli
Anastasia Moruzi
Anastasia of Sirmium
Anaïs Nin
Ancilla Marighetto
Ancuța Brâncoveanu
Anda Călugăreanu
Andreina Sacco
Andromache
Andromeda
Andrée De Jongh
Andrée Dupeyron
Andrée Jacob
Andrée Payfa
Andrée Putman
Anežka Malá
Angela Giussani
Angela Merici
Angela Păduraru
Angela Salawa
Angela Stadtherr
Angela of the Cross
Angela von den Driesch
Angelica Balabanoff
Angelica Kauffmann
Angelika Lex
Angeliki Chadzimichali
Angelina Lanza Damiani
Angelina Vidal
Angeline of Marsciano
Angélique Compoint
Aniela Krzywoń
Anita Augspurg
Anita Delgado
Anita Garibaldi
Anitta Müller-Cohen
Anka Krizmanić
Anna Amalia of Prussia
Anna Banti
Anna Barbera Krötz
Anna Bastel
Anna Boch
Anna Boschek
Anna Bruseberg
Anna Capodaglio
Anna Castelli Ferrieri
Anna Croissant-Rust
Anna Dandler
Anna Ebermann
Anna Figl
Anna Fortino
Anna Foà
Anna Franchi
Anna Frauer
Anna German
Anna Grobecker
Anna Hand
Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jasińska
Anna Kallina
Anna Kuliscioff
Anna Kántorné Engelhardt
Anna Kéthly
Anna Letenská
Anna Libera
Anna Lindh
Anna Lindhagen
Anna Lizaran
Anna Lorenzetto
Anna Louisa Karsch
Anna Mackenroth
Anna Magnani
Anna Maria Enriques Agnoletti
Anna Maria Lenngren
Anna Maria Mozzoni
Anna Maria Ortese
Anna Maria Rubatto
Anna Maria Taigi
Anna Marly
Anna Michelotti
Anna Mochow
Anna Müller
Anna Nemitz
Anna Nicolosi Grasso
Anna Oetting
Anna Perenna
Anna Piasecka
Anna Pleym
Anna Politkovskaya
Anna Radziwiłł
Anna Reitmor
Anna Rogstad
Anna Rosa Gattorno
Anna Rynkowska
Anna Rúbies i Monjonell
Anna Sageder
Anna Sandström
Anna Seghers
Anna Sethne
Anna Siemsen
Anna Stecksén
Anna Szwed-Śniadowska
Anna Walentynowicz
Anna Whitlock
Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Anna von Gierke
Anna Åbergsson
Anna Čížková
Anna Świrszczyńska
Anna, Grand Duchess of Lithuania
Anna-Lülja Praun
Anna-Maria Müller
Annalena Tonelli
Anne Brontë
Anne Frank
Anne Henriette of Bavaria
Anne Jaclard
Anne Kure
Anne of Denmark, Electress of Saxony
Anne of France
Anne of Kyiv
Anne of Saint Bartholomew
Anne-Marie Carrière
Anne-Marie Javouhey
Annelies Kupper
Anneliese Fleyenschmidt
Annemarie Renger
Annette Kolb
Annette von Aretin
Annette von Droste-Hülshoff
Anni Albers
Anni Haider
Anni-Frid Lyngstad
Annia Faustina
Annie Cordy
Annie Girardot
Annie Rosar
Annie Vivanti
Annie von Hammerstein
Annunciata Astoria Cocchetti
Anny Katan-Rosenberg
Antigone
Antoinette Fouque
Antoinette Van Gulick
Antonia Domínguez y Borrell
Antonia Díaz Fernández de Lamarque
Antonia Pozzi
Antonie Adamberger
Antonie Alt
Antonie Baumberg
Antonie Link
Antonie Platzer
Antonie Schläger
Antonietta Klitsche de la Grange
Antonietta Raphael
Antonina Hoffmann
Antoñita Colomé
Antónia Pusich
Anyte of Tegea
Apolonia Ogryczakowa
Appia Annia Regilla
Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria
Archduchess Gisela of Austria
Archduchess Hermine of Austria
Archduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este
Archduchess Marie Henriette of Austria
Aretha Franklin
Argentina Altobelli
Ariadne
Aristizza Romanescu
Arletty
Armida
Armida Barelli
Arminda Correia
Artemis
Artemisia Gentileschi
Ascensión García Ortiz
Aslaug Vaa
Aspasia
Asta Nielsen
Astri Taube
Astrid Lindgren
Astrid Olofsdotter
Astrid of Sweden
Aud Schønemann
Audrey Hepburn
Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke
Augusta Holmès
Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Auguste Fickert
Auguste Halbmeier
Auguste Hauschner
Auguste Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein
Aura Abranches
Aura Buzescu
Aurea of Ostia
Aurelia of Strasbourg
Aurora Argibay Iglesias
Aurora Bertrana
Aurora Redondo
Aurélie Nemours
Aurélie Solvay
Ave Ninchi
Balbina Valverde
Bally Prell
Baltazara Calderón
Barbara
Barbara Allason
Barbara Hesse-Bukowska
Barbara Kostrzewska
Barbara Ludwiżanka
Barbara Marchisio
Barbara McClintock
Barbara Prammer
Barbara Radziwiłł
Barbara Sadowska
Barbara Sass
Barbara Zbrożyna
Barbro Alving
Barbro Stigsdotter
Bartolomea Capitanio
Beata Artemska
Beata Obertyńska
Beata Sparre
Beatrice Cenci
Beatrice Zweig
Beatrice d’Este
Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice of Silva
Beatrice von Dovsky
Beatrix
Beatrix Kempf
Beatriz Fernández de Bobadilla
Beatriz Galindo
Beatriz de Ahumada
Bella Dorita
Benedetta Cappa
Berenice Abbott
Bergljot Haakonsdatter
Bernadette Soubirous
Bernarda Ferreira de Lacerda
Berta Boncza
Berta Cardoso
Berta Karlik
Berta Morena
Berta Waterstradt
Berta Zuckerkandl
Bertha Benz
Bertha Eckstein
Bertha Kipfmüller
Bertha Rasch
Bertha von Suttner
Berthe Morisot
Bertl Hayde
Berty Albrecht
Bessie Coleman
Bet Figueras
Bettina von Arnim
Betty Ambiveri
Betty Bartlett-Ambatielos
Betty Fischer
Betty Hirsch
Betty Paoli
Betty Roose
Betzy Kjelsberg
Bianca Bianchi
Bianca Maria Visconti
Bianca Milesi
Bianca of Savoy
Bice Valori
Biki
Birgit Jürgenssen
Birgit Nilsson
Blanca de los Ríos
Blanche Aubry
Blanche Caton
Blanche I of Navarre
Blanche II of Navarre
Blanche Lefebvre
Blanche of Castile
Blanche of Namur
Blanka Teleki
Blasa Pérez
Bodil Ipsen
Bona Peiser
Bozena Jandlova
Božena Hofmeisterová
Božena Laglerová
Božena Němcová
Božena Stárková
Branca Edmée Marques
Branca de Gonta Colaço
Brangäne
Bridget of Sweden
Brigida Maria Postorino
Brigida Morello
Brigit of Kildare
Brigitte Neumeister
Brigitte Reimann
Brita Ellström
Bronislava of Poland
Brunhilda of Austrasia
Brunilde Júdice
Brynhild
Brünnhilde
Bärbel Bohley
Béatrix Dussane
Caecilia Metella
Cajsa Warg
Calliope
Calypso
Camilla Cederna
Camilla Collett
Camilla Ravera
Camilla Virginia Savelli Farnese
Camille Claudel
Camille du Gast
Candida Maria of Jesus
Carla Capponi
Carlamaria Heim
Carlota O'Neill
Carlota de Mena i Zamora
Carlotta Benettini Martini
Carlotta Marchionni
Carlotta Marchisio
Carme Chacón
Carmen Amaya Amaya
Carmen Bravo-Villasante
Carmen Cobeña
Carmen Conde
Carmen Díaz
Carmen Laffón
Carmen Laforet
Carmen Martín Gaite
Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco, 2nd Duchess of Franco
Carmen Montoriol Puig
Carmen Olmedo Checa
Carmen Rico Godoy
Carmen Tórtola Valencia
Carmen de Burgos
Carola Neher
Carola of Vasa
Carolina Beatriz Ângelo
Carolina Coronado
Carolina Invernizio
Carolina Michaëlis de Vasconcelos
Carolina Santocanale
Caroline Aigle
Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
Caroline Herschel
Caroline of Baden
Caroline von Humboldt
Carry Brachvogel
Casilda of Toledo
Cassandra
Cassiopeia
Catalina Micaela of Spain
Catalina Suárez Marcayda
Catalina de Ribera
Caterina Albert
Caterina Cittadini
Caterina Martinelli
Caterina Scarpellini
Caterina Segurana
Caterina Sforza
Catherine Labouré
Catherine de La Rochefoucauld
Catherine of Alexandria
Catherine of Austria, Queen of Portugal
Catherine of Genoa
Catherine of Siena
Catherine of Sweden, Countess Palatine of Kleeburg
Cecilia
Cecilia Cuțescu-Storck
Cecilia Deganutti
Cecilie Thoresen Krog
Cecilie, Crown Princess of Germany
Cecylia Śniegocka
Cecília Meireles
Ceija Stojka
Celeste Clericetti
Celia Grillo Borromeo
Centa Beimler
Centa Hafenbrädl
Ceres
Cesina Bermudes
Cesira Fiori
Cesária Évora
Chana Orloff
Chantal Akerman
Charlotte Ammundsen
Charlotte Brontë
Charlotte E. Pauly
Charlotte Eisenblätter
Charlotte Garrigue
Charlotte Munck
Charlotte Perriand
Charlotte Salomon
Charlotte Weinmann
Charlotte Wolter
Charlotte of Mexico
Cheikha Rimitti
Chiara Bosatta
Chloe
Christel Küpper
Christel Sembach-Krone
Christiane Vulpius
Christina Gyllenstierna
Christina Nilsson
Christina of Bolsena
Christina of Denmark
Christine Enghaus
Christine Nöstlinger
Christine Touaillon
Christine de Pizan
Christine of France
Christl Zimmerl
Christl-Marie Schultes
Cilli Löwinger
Circe
Ciriaca di Roma
Claire Heyman
Claire Waldoff
Claire Watson
Clara Bohm-Schuch
Clara Campoamor
Clara Clairbert
Clara Grunwald
Clara Immerwahr
Clara Jaschke
Clara Maffei
Clara Mleinek
Clara Müller-Jahnke
Clara Pontoppidan
Clara Schumann
Clara Viebig
Clara Zetkin
Clara Ziegler
Clara del Rey
Clara von Simson
Clare of Assisi
Clarice Tartufari
Clarissa Jean-Philippe
Claudia Heill
Claudia Muzio
Claudia Quinta
Clelia Bertini Attilj
Clelia Merloni
Clementina Arderiu
Cleopatra
Clio
Cloe Elmo
Clorinda Menguzzato
Clotilde
Clotilde Bizolon
Clotilde de Vaux
Clémence Royer
Coco Chanel
Colette
Colette Besson
Colette Heilbronner
Colette Magny
Colomba Antonietti
Colomba Gabriel
Columba of Sens
Concepción Aleixandre Ballester
Concepción Arenal
Concettina Ramondetta Fileti
Concha Caballero
Concha Espina
Conchita Badía
Conchita Montenegro
Conchita Montes
Conchita Supervía
Constance
Constance of Sicily
Constanze Hallgarten
Constança Capdeville
Consuelo Rubio
Conxa Pérez Collado
Cora Berliner
Cora Sandel
Cora Vaucaire
Cosima Wagner
Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde
Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau
Countess Palatine Maria Anna of Sulzbach
Creusa
Cristina Trivulzio Belgiojoso
Cunigunde of Luxembourg
Cvijeta Zuzorić
Cybele
Cyla Wiesenthal
Cynisca
Càndida Pérez i Martínez
Cécile Brunschvicg
Cécile Chaminade
Cécile Furtado-Heine
Dagmar of Bohemia
Dalida
Dana Medřická
Danaë
Danielle Casanova
Danielle Faÿnel-Duclos
Danuta Siedzikówna
Daphne
Davia
Dea Trier Mørch
Delia Scala
Delmira Agustini
Demeter
Denise Darcel
Denise Joussot
Denise Vernay
Despo Botsi
Dhuoda
Dian Fossey
Diana
Diana Alexandra Donea
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diane de Poitiers
Dido
Dina Galli
Diná Silveira de Queirós
Doamna Chiajna
Doamna Despina Miliţa
Doamna Elena
Doamna Stanca
Doina Aldea-Teodorovici
Doina Cornea
Dolores Ibárruri
Dolores Palumbo
Dolores Romero Arano
Dolors Batlle i Sunyer
Dolors Lleonart i Casanovas
Dolors Masferrer i Bosch
Dolors Monserdà i Vidal
Dolors Piera
Domitia Calvilla
Domnița Florica
Donca Simo
Dora Benjamin
Dora Keplinger
Dora Mendler
Dora Pejačević
Dora Pfanova
Dora d'Istria
Doris Lessing
Dorota Kłuszyńska
Dorotea
Dorothea Erxleben
Dorothea Lange
Dorothea Neff
Dorothea Stutkowski
Dorothea Viehmann
Dorothea of Caesarea
Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Dorothea von Schlegel
Dorottya Kanizsai
Dragojla Jarnević
Duchess Anna I, Duchess of Prussia
Duchess Charlotte Friederike of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg
Dulce Chacón
Dulce del Moral
Dulcie September
Dulcinea
Dwoire Weinfeld
Dyveke Sigbritsdatter
Déryné Róza Széppataki
Ebba Lund
Ebe Stignani
Ecaterina Teodoroiu
Edel Saunte
Edit Domján
Edita Broglio
Edith Cavell
Edith Kiss
Edith Rode
Edith Schollwer
Edith Stein
Eduarda Lapa
Edwige Feuillère
Egeria
Eileen Gray
Eleanor of Arborea
Eleanor of Austria
Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Sicily
Eleanor of Viseu
Elektra
Elena Alistar
Elena Caragiani-Stoenescu
Elena Cuza
Elena Fabrizi
Elena Farago
Elena Fortún
Elena Milashina
Elena Teodorini
Elena Văcărescu
Elena of Montenegro
Eleni Skoura
Eleonora Curlo Ruffini
Eleonora Duse
Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel
Eleonora Hiltl
Eleonore Romberg
Elettra Pollastrini
Elfi Althoff-Jacobi
Elfriede Gerstl
Elfriede Kuhr
Elfriede Tygör
Eli Møller
Elin Falk
Elin Wägner
Elina Júlia Chaves Pereira Guimarães
Elisa Leonida Zamfirescu
Elisa Moragas i Badia
Elisa Ochoa
Elisa Ruiz Romero
Elisabeth Abegg
Elisabeth Baerlein
Elisabeth Bergner
Elisabeth Charlotte Gloeden
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern
Elisabeth Dane
Elisabeth Dmitrieff
Elisabeth Dudek
Elisabeth Eidenbenz
Elisabeth Feller
Elisabeth Flickenschildt
Elisabeth Freundlich
Elisabeth Jost
Elisabeth Kaeser
Elisabeth Kohn
Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria
Elisabeth Mann Borgese
Elisabeth Olin
Elisabeth Plainacher
Elisabeth Schampaert
Elisabeth Schiemann
Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt
Elisabeth Selbert
Elisabeth Tamm
Elisabeth Winterhalter
Elisabeth of Swabia
Elisabeth of Valois
Elisabeth of the Holy Trinity
Elisabeth zu Guttenberg
Elisabetta Canori Mora
Elise Aulinger
Elise Freinet
Elise Georges
Elise Hampel
Elise Polko
Elise Richter
Elise Sørensen
Elisenda de Pinós
Elisenda of Montcada
Eliza Orzeszkowa
Elizabeth
Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine
Elizabeth T. Spira
Elizabeth of Aragon
Elizabeth of Bohemia
Elizabeth of Hungary
Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary
Eliška Junková
Eliška Krásnohorská
Eliška Pešková
Ella Barowsky
Ella Kay
Ella Lingens
Ella Trebe
Ellen Ammann
Ellen Epstein
Ellen Fries
Ellen Gleditsch
Ellen Key
Ellen MacArthur
Ellen Widmann
Elli Voigt
Ellie Lambeti
Ellis Kaut
Elly Heuss-Knapp
Elly Ney
Elly Staegmeyr
Elna Munch
Elpis
Elsa Beskow
Elsa Bienenfeld
Elsa Borg
Elsa Brändström
Elsa De Giorgi
Elsa Frison
Elsa Ledetsch
Elsa Merlini
Elsa Morante
Elsa Rendschmidt
Elsa Triolet
Elsa Wagner
Elsa of Brabant
Else Alfelt
Else Ernestine Neuländer-Simon
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Elvira Notari
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Emma Calvé
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Emma Gad
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Emmy Destinn
Emmy Noether
Emmy Rappe
Emmy Zehden
Empress Elisabeth of Austria
Empress Maria Anna of Austria
Emília Coranty Llurià
Emília Eduarda
Emília Llorca Martin
Emília Márkus
Emília das Neves
Engratia
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Enrica Calabresi
Enrica von Handel-Mazzetti
Erika Cremer
Erika Köth
Erika Mann
Erika Mitterer
Erika Nissen
Erika von Brockdorff
Erinna
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Erminia Frezzolini
Erminia Fuà Fusinato
Erna Berger
Erna Eckstein
Erna Lesky
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Ernestine Caroline Tübbecke
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Erni Singerl
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Ervina Dragman
Erzsi Gervay
Erzsébet Házy
Erzsébet Kol
Erzsébet Szilágyi
Esperanza Elena Caro
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Estefania de Requesens i Roís de Liori
Estelle Juste
Ester Boserup
Ester Ellqvist
Esther
Esther Ammundsen
Esther Møller
Estrellita Castro
Etta Cameron
Eudokia, wife of Constantine V
Eufrosina Popescu
Eugenia Crușevan
Eugenia Picco
Eugenia Ravasco
Eugenia Umińska
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Eugenie Fink
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Eugénie Legrand
Eugénie Niboyet
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Euphrosyne
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Ewa Szelburg-Zarembina
Fanny Brate
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Fatema Mernissi
Fausta
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Faustina the Elder
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Felicia Impastato
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Felicity
Felicula
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Filipa de Vilhena
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Flora
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Fortuna
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Francisquita
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Franziska Bilek
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Franziska Tausig
Franziska Tiburtius
Françoise Dolto
Françoise Dorléac
Françoise Giroud
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon
Freda Meissner-Blau
Freda Wuesthoff
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Fredrika Bremer
Fredrika Limnell
Fredrikke Marie Qvam
Freydís Eiríksdóttir
Freyja
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Friederike Klauner
Friederike Nadig
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis
Frigg
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Fromet Mendelssohn
Frosa Sarandy
Fréhel
Félicie Hervieu
Gabriela Gomez-Ortega
Gabriela Mistral
Gabriela Zapolska
Gabriele Modl-Tomann
Gabriele Münter
Gabriele Possanner
Gabriele Proft
Gabriele Tergit
Gabriele von Bülow
Gabriella Degli Esposti
Gabriella Rasponi Spalletti
Gabrielle Petit
Gabrielle Vincent
Gabrielle d'Estrées
Gaby Sylvia
Galatea
Galla Placidia
Gaspara Stampa
Geltrude Comensoli
Gemma Bellincioni
Gemma Galgani
Genevieve
Genevieve of Brabant
Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz
Genoveva Schauer
George Eliot
George Sand
Georgette Agutte
Georgette Elgey
Georgine Steininger
Gerd Kjølaas
Gerda Boenke
Gerda Szepansky
Gerda Taro
Germaine Krull
Germaine Poinso-Chapuis
Germaine Richier
Germaine Sablon
Germaine Tailleferre
Germaine de Staël
Germana Stefanini
Gertrud Bodenwieser
Gertrud Bäumer
Gertrud Dorka
Gertrud Elisabeth Mara
Gertrud Grunow
Gertrud Hanna
Gertrud Kolmar
Gertrud Kückelmann
Gertrud Pincus
Gertrud von Le Fort
Gertrude Fröhlich-Sandner
Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Wondrack
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Gertrude the Great
Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda
Gerty Archimede
Gerty Cori
Gerty Spies
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Gianna Pederzini
Giannina Milli
Gilberte Brossolette
Gina Borellini
Gina Krog
Gina Patrichi
Ginette Hamelin
Ginette Javaux
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Giorgiana Masi
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Giovanna Garzoni
Gisela Legath
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Gisèle Freund
Gisèle Halimi
Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli
Giuditta Grisi
Giuditta Pasta
Giuditta Rissone
Giuditta Tavani Arquati
Giulia Crostarosa
Giulia Grisi
Giulia Molino Colombini
Giuliana Luigia Evelina Mameli Calvino
Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Pezzi
Giuseppina Grassini
Giuseppina Martinuzzi
Giuseppina Medori
Giuseppina Nicoli
Giuseppina Pizzigoni
Giuseppina Strepponi
Giuseppina Turrisi Colonna
Glicínia Quartin
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Grace Hopper
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Grażyna Bacewicz
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Gret Palucca
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Greta Garbo
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Greta Zimmer Friedman
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Grete Weil
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Grete von Zieritz
Gretel
Gretel Bergmann
Grethe Weiser
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Gudrun
Gudula
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Guglielmina Ronconi
Guilhermina Suggia
Guiomar Torrezão
Guiomar de Ulloa
Gunhild of Wenden
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Gunta Stölzl
Guylaine Gouzou-Testud
Gyda Eiriksdatter
Gänseliesel
Haila von Westarp
Halina Cieślińska-Brzeska
Halina Halska
Halina Konopacka
Halina Krahelska
Halina Poświatowska
Halina Szwarc
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Hanka Ordonówna
Hanna Czaki
Hanna Hirsch-Pauli
Hanna Kamieniecki
Hanna Mortkowicz-Olczakowa
Hanna Rydh
Hannah Arendt
Hannah Höch
Hannah Karminski
Hanne Hiob
Hansi Niese
Hariclea Darclée
Harriet Sundström
Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht
Hedvika Vilgusová
Hedwig Dohm
Hedwig Dransfeld
Hedwig Kämpfer
Hedwig Lehnert
Hedwig Porschütz
Hedwig Sophie Franziska Hägemann
Hedwig Urach
Hedwig Wachenheim
Hedwig of Silesia
Hedy Blum
Hedy Lamarr
Hel
Helen Ernst
Helen Keller
Helen of Troy
Helena Adamczewska
Helena Augusta
Helena Boguszewska
Helena Chaniecka
Helena Félix
Helena Jiříčková
Helena Kozłowska
Helena M. Vaz Da Silva
Helena Maliřová
Helena Marusarzówna
Helena Modjeska
Helena Radlińska
Helena Rzeszotarska
Helena Schilizzi
Helena Wolff
Helene Bauer
Helene Böhlau
Helene Jacobs
Helene Lange
Helene Mayer
Helene Migerka
Helene Nathan
Helene Odilon
Helene Pintsch
Helene Potetz
Helene Raff
Helene Richter
Helene Thimig
Helene Weber
Helene Weigel
Helene Wessel
Helene von Mülinen
Helga Haase
Helga Larsen
Hella Hirsch
Helly Möslein
Henny Mürer
Henny Porten
Henrietta Treffz
Henriette DeLille
Henriette Herz
Henriette Lustig
Henriette Willardt
Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg
Henriette von Pereira-Arnstein
Herma Bauma
Hermine Bland
Hermine Bosetti
Hermine Cloeter
Hermine Dasovsky
Hermine Jursa
Hermine Parish
Hermína Týrlová
Hermínia Silva
Herta Pammer
Hertha Block
Hertha Firnberg
Hertha Frankel
Hertha Kräftner
Hilda Fonovits
Hilda Geiringer
Hilde Coppi
Hilde Ephraim
Hilde Hannak
Hilde Spiel
Hildegard Burjan
Hildegard Hamm-Brücher
Hildegard Jadamowitz
Hildegard Knef
Hildegard Marcusson
Hildegard Teuschl
Hildegard of Bingen
Hippodamia
Hope Bridges Adams Lehmann
Hortense Dury-Vasselon
Hristina Sushko
Hyacintha Mariscotti
Hygieia
Hypatia
Héloïse d’Argenteuil
Hélène Berthaud
Hélène Brion
Hélène Dutrieu
Hélène Jakubowicz
Hélène Missoffe
Hélène Ryckmans
Ida Baccini
Ida Laura Pfeiffer
Ida Margulies
Ida Roland
Ida Schumacher
Ida Turay
Ida Wolff
Ida von Arnim
Ignatia Jorth
Ika Freudenberg
Ilaria Alpi
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Ilona Batthyány
Ilona Zrínyi
Ilonka Szabó
Ilse Arlt
Ilse Beatrice Twardowska-Conrat
Ilse Buck
Ilse Fehling
Ilse Pisk
Ilse Schaeffer
Ilse Weber
Imperio Argentina
Ina Seidel
Indira Gandhi
Ines Alfani-Tellini
Ines Bedeschi
Ines Bolla
Ines Oddone
Infanta Isabella, Countess of Agrigento
Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier
Infanta Maria Josepha of Portugal
Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain
Infanta Maria of Spain
Infanta María de la Paz of Spain
Infanta María de las Mercedes, Countess of Barcelona
Inga Bjørnson
Inge Beisheim
Inge Konradi
Inge Lehmann
Inge Morath
Ingeborg Bachmann
Ingeborg Drewitz
Ingeborg Hunzinger
Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden
Ingegerd of Norway
Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Goltzsche-Schwarz
Ingrid Kretschmer
Ingrid Leodolter
Ingrid Ragnvaldsdotter
Innocentia Pögel
Ioana Radu
Iphigenia
Irena Kosmowska
Irena Krzywicka
Irena Sendler
Irene Caba Alba
Irene Gutiérrez Caba
Irene Isidro
Irene Jerusalem
Irene Lisboa
Irene of Athens
Irene of Spain
Irene of Thessalonica
Iris
Iris Versari
Irisalva Moita
Irma Bandiera
Irma Gramatica
Irma Marchiani
Irmgard Gylstorff
Irmtraud Morgner
Iryna Tsvila
Irène Joliot-Curie
Irène Némirovsky
Irène Van der Linden
Irén Psota
Irén Varsányi
Isa Miranda
Isabel Cheix
Isabel II of Spain
Isabel Tintero
Isabel Vicente García
Isabel Vilà i Pujol
Isabel de Magalhães Colaço
Isabel de Villena
Isabela de Rosis
Isabella Braun
Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Colbran
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella Jagiellon
Isabella d'Este
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Isabella of Portugal
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Isabelle Gatti de Gamond
Isabelle Stengers
Isadora Duncan
Isala Van Diest
Isis
Isolde
Isolde Kurz
Italia Almirante Manzini
Iulia Hasdeu
Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić
Ivana Lang
Ivone Silva
Iwona Borowicka
Iðunn
Jacinta Marto
Jacoba of Settesoli
Jacobine Rye
Jacqueline Auriol
Jacqueline Domergue
Jacqueline François
Jacqueline Giraud
Jacqueline Harpman
Jacqueline de Pury
Jadwiga Andrzejewska
Jadwiga I of Poland
Jadwiga Kokoszko
Jadwiga Majówna
Jadwiga Smosarska
Jadwiga Strokowa
Jagoda Truhelka
Jane Addams
Jane Evrard
Jane Goodall
Jane Haining
Jane Jacobs
Jane Tilden
Janina Bieniarzówna
Janina Kłopocka
Janina Lewandowska
Janina Porazińska
Janis Joplin
Janka Zirzen
Jeanette Wolff
Jeanne Baré
Jeanne Bohec
Jeanne Chauvin
Jeanne Hachette
Jeanne Jugan
Jeanne Julia Bartet
Jeanne Kœhler
Jeanne Lapauze
Jeanne Mammen
Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Villepreux-Power
Jeanne-Elisabeth Bichier de Ages
Jeanne-Marie Celu
Jeannie Ebner
Jeannine Worms
Jella Lepman
Jenny Lind
Jenny Nyström
Jenny Steiner
Jerónima Llorente
Jessie White Mario
Jimena Menéndez-Pidal
Jiřina Šejbalová
Jiřina Štěpničková
Jo Cox
Joan Antidea Thouret
Joan of Arc
Joan of England
Joan, Princess of Portugal
Joanna I of Naples
Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal
Joanna Żubr
Joaquina Maria Mercedes Barcelo Pages
Joaquina Vedruna
Johanna Bauer
Johanna Dohnal
Johanna Endemann
Johanna Friesen
Johanna Hofer
Johanna Kirchner
Johanna Lazarus
Johanna Spyri
Johanna Stegen
Johanna Tesch
Johanna von Puttkamer
Josefa Díaz Fernández
Josefa Faimonová
Josefa Maria Imma Mack
Josefa Segovia Morón
Josefa de Óbidos
Josefina Aldecoa
Josefina Carabias
Josefine Amann-Weinlich
Josefine Gallmeyer
Josefine Hawelka
Josefine Kramer-Glöckner
Josefine Welsch
Josephine Baker
Josephine Haas
Josephine Lang
Josephine Wessely
Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Joyce Lussu
Juana Cruz de la Casa
Juana Doña Jiménez
Juana I of Castile
Juana Inés de la Cruz
Juana María de los Dolores de León Smith
Juci Komlós
Judith Auer
Judith Deutsch
Judith Holzmeister
Judith d'Evreux
Julia Cæsar
Julia Drapal
Julia Nenko
Julia Zbijewska
Julia of Corsica
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Juliana Morell
Juliana of Nicomedia
Julie Rettich
Julie Wolfthorn
Julie-Victoire Daubié
Juliet
Julieta Ferrão
Juliette Adam
Juliette Colbert de Barolo
Juliette Dodu
Juliette Drouet
Juliette Récamier
Juliette Wytsman
Juno
Justa
Justa Domínguez de Vidaurreta e Idoy
Justa Freire
Justina of Padua
Justyna Budzińska-Tylicka
Jutta Langenau
Júlia Bányai
Kalina Jędrusik
Kalliroi Parren
Kamila Skolimowska
Kamma Rahbek
Karen Blixen
Karen Cudrio
Karen Platou
Karin Boye
Karin Larsson
Karin Månsdotter
Karin Nellemose
Karla Kučerová
Karolina Gerhardinger
Karolina Světlá
Karolina Widerström
Karoline Meittinger
Karoline Pichler
Karoline Tintner
Karoline Uetz
Karoline von Günderrode
Karoline von Perin-Gradenstein
Kassia
Kata Dalström
Kata Szidónia Petrőczy
Kata Šoljić
Katalin Varga
Katarina Taikon
Katarina Zrinska
Katarzyna Kobro
Kateryna Stupnytska
Kateryna Vasylivna Bilokur
Katharina Boll-Dornberger
Katharina Heinroth
Katharina von Bora
Kathi Kobus
Katica Dobo
Katja Niederkirchner
Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna
Kiki Kogelnik
Kinga of Poland
Kirsten Walther
Klara Blum
Klara Franke
Klara Heese
Klara Schabbel
Klara Weyl
Klementyna Hoffmanowa
Klymene
Klára Zsindelyné Tüdős
Kläre Bloch
Konstanze Vernon
Kornélia Prielle
Kristin Lavransdatter
Kristina I of Sweden
Kristine Bonnevie
Krystyna Idzikowska
Krystyna Krahelska
Krystyna Matysiakówna
Krystyna Niewiarowska
Ksenija Kantoci
Kvitka Cisyk
Käte Frankenthal
Käthe Bauer-Mengelberg
Käthe Dorsch
Käthe Gold
Käthe Haack
Käthe Heinemann
Käthe Jonas
Käthe Kollwitz
Käthe Kruse
Käthe Leichter
Käthe Odwody
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La Argentina
La Clairon
Laskarina Bouboulina
Laura Alves
Laura Ayres
Laura Bianchini
Laura Ciceri Visconti
Laura Garroni
Laura Gundersen
Laura Lombardo Radice
Laura Orvieto
Laura Solera Mantegazza
Laura Turner
Laure Diebold
Laure Surville
Lauretta Li Greci
Lavinia
Lavinia Fontana
Lavinia Mazzucchetti
Lea Grundig
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Leda
Lela Karagianni
Lella Lombardi
Lena Christ
Leonilda Sjöström
Leonor López de Córdoba
Leonor Pimentel y Toledo
Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna
Leonor de Cortinas
Leonore
Leonore Brecher
Leonore Goldschmidt
Leopoldina Bălănuță
Leopoldine Glöckel
Leopoldine Padaurek
Leopoldine Schlinger
Lesya Ukrainka
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Liane Augustin
Liane Haid
Licoride
Lidia Bianchi
Lidia Istrati
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Lieselotte Berger
Liesl Karlstadt
Lil Dagover
Lili Berky
Lili Esther Roubiczek
Lili Grün
Lilla Szilágyi Bulyovszkyné
Lilli Henoch
Lilli Palmer
Lillian Board
Lilly Reich
Lily Braun
Lily Broberg
Lin Jaldati
Lina Bo Bardi
Lina Buffolente
Lina Cavalieri
Lina Hähnle
Lina Löb
Lina Merlin
Lina Morgenstern
Lina Sandell
Lina Volonghi
Linda Malnati
Lisa Fittko
Lisbeth Stern
Lise Meitner
Lise Ringheim
Liselotte Herrmann
Little Red Riding Hood
Liva Weel
Livia
Livia Orestilla
Ljerka Šram
Ljuba Welitsch
Llibertat Ròdenas
Llucieta Canyà i Martí
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Lola Anglada
Lola Bobesco
Lola Flores
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Lola Montez
Lone Kellermann
Lone Mogensen
Lore Kutschera
Loredana Marchi
Lorenza Correa
Loreto Prado
Lotte Branz
Lotte Lang
Lotte Laserstein
Lotte Lehmann
Lotte Lenya
Lotte Schenk-Danzinger
Lottlisa Behling
Louisa Chaudoir
Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
Louise Abbéma
Louise Adelborg
Louise Arbour
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Faurite
Louise Haerens Robelus
Louise Henry
Louise Hervieu
Louise Hours
Louise Kartousch
Louise Labé
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Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois
Louise Martini
Louise Michel
Louise Schroeder
Louise Thuliez
Louise Weiss
Louise de Marillac
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Louise of Savoy
Louise of the Netherlands
Louise van den Plas
Louise von Eisenhart
Louise-Émilie de La Tour d'Auvergne
Luce d'Eramo
Lucia Guerrini
Lucia Mondella
Lucia Popp
Luciana Frassati Gawronska
Luciana Giussani
Luciana Massenzi
Luciana Stegagno Picchio
Lucile Grahn
Lucinda Simões
Lucinda do Carmo
Lucretia
Lucrècia de Mèrida
Lucy Filippini
Lucy Lameck
Lucyna Krzemieniecka
Lucyna Messal
Lucília Simões
Lucília do Carmo
Ludmila of Bohemia
Ludmilla of Bohemia
Ludovica Albertoni
Ludwika Nitschowa
Ludwika Wawrzyńska
Luigia Cerale
Luisa Battistotti Sassi
Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza
Luisa Roldán
Luisa Sanfelice
Luisa Spagnoli
Luisa Tetrazzini
Luisa de Guzmán
Luise Dustmann-Meyer
Luise Kiesselbach
Luise Montag
Luise Ullrich
Luise Zietz
Luise von Schwartzkoppen
Lujza Blaha
Luz Casanova
Luzia Maria Martins
Luísa Neto Jorge
Luísa Todi
Lyda Borelli
Lydia Becker
Lydia Rabinowitsch-Kempner
Lydia Sicher
Lyudmyla Protsenko
Léa Blain
Léa Bullukian
Léonie Duquet
Léonie Kastner-Boursault
Lída Baarová
Madame de Montespan
Madame de Sévigné
Maddalena Corvina
Madeleine Brès
Madeleine Marzin
Madeleine Rebérioux
Madeleine Sophie Barat
Madeleine Vionnet
Mado Maurin
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Magda Isanos
Magda Szabó
Magdalena Dobromila Rettigová
Magdalena Maria Epstein
Magdalena Samozwaniec
Magdalena Schwarz
Magdalene of Canossa
Maggy Breittmayer
Maj Bring
Manto Mavrogeni
Manuela
Manuela Malasaña
Manuela Porto
Marcel Malherbe
Marcelina Kulikowska
Marceline Desbordes-Valmore
Marceline Loridan-Ivens
Marcelle Henry
Maren Juel
Marga von Etzdorf
Margaret Fuller
Margaret I of Denmark
Margaret Mead
Margaret Thatcher
Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy
Margaret of Hungary
Margaret of Parma
Margaret of Valois
Margaret of Valois-Angoulême
Margaret the Virgin
Margareta Heinrich
Margareta Petrovna Forman
Margareta Sterian
Margarete Hilferding
Margarete Kühn
Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky
Margarete Seemann
Margarete Sommer
Margarete Steffin
Margarete Steiff
Margarete Walter
Margaretha Krook
Margarethe Danzi
Margarethe Lenore Selenka
Margarethe Ottillinger
Margarida Fort i Mollar
Margarida Vieira Mendes
Margarida de Abreu
Margarita Nelken
Margarita Xirgu
Margherita Guarducci
Margherita Occhiena
Margherita of Savoy
Margit Dajka
Margit Doppler
Margit Kaffka
Margit Schramm
Margit Slachta
Margot Hielscher
Margot Kalinke
Margrethe Munthe
Margrethe Parm
Marguerite Bervoets
Marguerite Boucicaut
Marguerite Duras
Marguerite Long
Marguerite Van de Wiele
Marguerite Yourcenar
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Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
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Maria de Maeztu Whitney
Maria de Orúe
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Maria, Queen of Sicily
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Mariana de Pineda Muñoz
Marianna Bulgarelli
Marianna Candidi Dionigi
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Marie d'Agoult
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Marie of Hesse-Kassel
Marie of Lorraine
Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Marie-Andrée Lagroua Weill-Hallé
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Marie-Elisabeth Lüders
Marie-Elisabeth von Humboldt
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Marie-Françoise-Célestine-Gabrielle de Vintimille du Luc
Marie-Hélène Lefaucheux
Marie-Jeanne de Lalande
Marie-José Nicoli
Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin
Marie-Louise Jaÿ
Marie-Louise Kinet
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Marieluise Fleißer
Marietta Alboni
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Marija Braut
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Marilyn Monroe
Marina
Marina Tsvetaeva
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Marisa Bellisario
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Marko Vovchok
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Martha
Martha Arendsee
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Martha Fontane
Martha Näbauer
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Marthe Simard
Martina of Rome
Martine Durlach
Maruja Mallo
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Mary Shelley
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Mary Ward
Mary Ward
Mary of Burgundy
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Mary of Teck
Mary, Queen of Scots
Maryam Mirzakhani
Maryse Bastié
Maryse Hilsz
María Ana Mogas Fontcuberta
María Blanchard
María Casares
María Dolores Rodríguez Sopeña
María Edwards
María Fernández Coronel
María Gaetana Agnesi
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María Goyri
María Guerrero
María Ignacia Ibáñez
María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda
María Josefa Massanés
María Laffitte
María Manuela Kirkpatrick
María Manuela Pignatelli de Aragón y Gonzaga
María Martín
María Martínez Sierra
María Moliner
María Paz Martínez Unciti
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María Tubau
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María de Molinillo
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María de Villota
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María del Carmen González Ramos
María del Carmen Hernández Espinosa de los Monteros
María Ángeles Rivas Ureña
Mascha Kaléko
Mathilde Berghofer-Weichner
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Mathilde Vaerting
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Mathilde Wildauer
Matilda Jungstedt
Matilda of Habsburg
Matilda of Ringelheim
Matilda of Tuscany
Matilde Bensaúde
Matilde Díez
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Matilde Rosa Lopes de Araújo
Matilde Serao
Matilde del Sagrado Corazón
Matrona of Barcelona
Matylda Čiháková
Maud Frère
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Maurane
Maxie Wander
May Ayim
Medea
Mela Koehler
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Melania the Younger
Melina Mercouri
Melitta Bentz
Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg
Melpomene
Melusine
Mercedes de Velilla
Mercedes of Orléans
Mercè Rodoreda
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Merope
Metilde Viscontini Dembowski
Mieczysława Ćwiklińska
Mila Dimitrijević
Milada Horáková
Mildred Harnack
Mildred Scheel
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Minerva
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Minna Todenhagen
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Muriel Gardiner
Muses
Myriam Monsonégo
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Natércia Freire
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Nicoline Hambro
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Nilde Iotti
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Notburga
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Odette de Saint-Maurice
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Ofelia Nieto
Oksana Petrusenko
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Olena Teliha
Olga Benário Prestes
Olga Boznańska
Olga Chekhova
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Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska
Olga Ehrenhaft-Steindler
Olga Havlová
Olga Misař
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Olga Perl
Olga Ramos
Olga Vrabie
Olga Wisinger-Florian
Olga of Kyiv
Olha Kobylianska
Olimpia Maidalchini
Olivia Nielsen
Olivia of Palermo
Olly Schwarz
Olwen
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Ondina Valla
Opportuna of Montreuil
Ops
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Othilie Tonning
Otilia Castellví
Ottilia Jacobsen
Ottilie Baader
Ottilie Bondy
Ottilie Pohl
Ottilie Wildermuth
Otýlie Beníšková
Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico
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Our Lady of Peace
Palma Bucarelli
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Pamphile of Epidaurus
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Paraskeva Pyatnitsa
Paraskeva of the Balkans
Pasquarosa
Pastora Imperio
Paula Frassinetti
Paula Fürst
Paula Hahn-Weinheimer
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Paula Ludwig
Paula Menari
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Paula Thiede
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Paula von Preradović
Pauline Bonaparte
Pauline Jaricot
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Pauline von Metternich
Penelope
Penelope Delta
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Perchta
Perenelle Flamel
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Persephone
Petra Kelly
Petra Moll
Phaenarete
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Philomena
Philomène Magnin
Philothei
Phryne
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Piccarda
Pierina Scaramella
Pilar Lorengar
Pilar Mercedes Miró Romero
Pilar Millán Astray
Pilar de Madariaga Rojo
Pina López-Gay
Pina Menichelli
Pippi Longstocking
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Plautilla
Plautilla Bricci
Pola Gojawiczyńska
Pola Negri
Polyhymnia
Pomponia Graecina
Poppaea Sabina
Praxedes
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Princess Alexandra of Greece
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Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner
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Princess Friederike of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
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Princess Louise of Belgium
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Quiteria
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Radegund
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Rapunzel
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Raquel Meller
Rebecca
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Regina von Siebold
Renata Bianchi
Renata Zwoźniakowa
Renata of Lorraine
Renée Lechartier
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Renée Sabran
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Rina De Liguoro
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Rina Morelli
Rita Atria
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Rita Luna
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Rita Thalmann
Rocio Jurado
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Rosalia Chladek
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Rosalía de Castro
Rosamund
Rosanna Benzi
Rosario Pino
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Rosario de Acuña
Rose Faurite
Rose Valland
Rose Venerini
Rose of Lima
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Rosellina Balbi
Rosemarie Fendel
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Rosemonde Pujol
Rosetta Pampanini
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Rosina Anselmi
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Rufina
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Secunda
Selene
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Senta
Serena of Rome
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Sif
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Snow White
Sofi Almquist
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Sofia Schliemann
Sofie Brahe, Heiress of Knusdtrup
Sofie Podlipská
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St. Zita
Stamira
Stanisława Dowgiałłówna
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Susanne Schmida
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Suzanne Cocq
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Suzanne Lenglen
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Teresa Gomes
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Teresa Mattei
Teresa Noce
Teresa de Saldanha
Teresa del Niño Jesús y de San Juan de la Cruz
Teresa of Ávila
Terpsichore
Teréz Nagyajtai
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Thalia
Thea Rasche
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Therese Danner
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Therese Studer
Therese Wagner
Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Therese von Wüllenweber
Thermantia
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Tina Blau
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Tina Modotti
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Toinon
Toni Lessler
Toni Pfülf
Tove Maës
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Trude Dothan
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Urania
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Ute
Ute Bock
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Valborg Tveter
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Věra Aubrechtová
Waltraud Krause
Wanda Capodaglio
Wanda Jordan-Łowińska
Wanda Kallenbach
Wanda Modlibowska
Wanda Osiris
Wanda Ramos
Wanda Rutkiewicz
Wanda Telakowska
Wangari Muta Maathai
Wendela Hebbe
Wiktoria Kawecka
Wilhelmine Duncker
Wilhelmine Gemberg
Wilhelmine Luise Mencken
Wilhelmine Mitterwurzer
Wilhelmine Moik
Wilhelmine Montléart
Wilhelmine Reichard
Wilhelmine von Hillern
Wisława Szymborska
Włada Majewska
Xanthippe
Yelizaveta Chaikina
Yevheniia Miroshnychenko
Yolande of Valois
Yvette Guilbert
Yvette Vincent-Alleaume
Yvonne Jospa
Yvonne Le Tac
Yvonne Nèvejean
Zabel Yesayan
Zaha Hadid
Zaida of Seville
Zdena Lyckova
Zdenka Braunerová
Zdeňka Baldová
Zdeňka Nyplová
Zelda Kaplan
Zelia Nuttall
Zenobia Camprubí
Zenzl Mühsam
Zerbinetta
Zerline Gabillon
Zinka Milanov
Zita Zehner
Zoe Fontana
Zoe Golescu
Zofia Gumińska
Zofia Koniarkowa
Zofia Kossak-Szczucka
Zofia Nałkowska
Zofia Oleśnicka
Zofia Stryjeńska
Zofia Tajber
Zofia Wóycicka
Zoia Gaidai
Zsuzsa Körmöczy
Zsuzsanna Kossuth
Zsuzsanna Lorántffy
Zsófia Torma
Zulejka Stefanini
Zuzana Navarová
Zuzanna Ginczanka
Zvjezdana Ladika
de Jesús, 1611-1682 Isabel
Àngels Garriga de Mata
Ángela Figuera Aymerich
Ángela Ruiz Robles
Ángeles García Madrid
Ângela Pinto
Ålov Einarsdatter
Édith Piaf
Édith Thomas
Éliane Jeannin-Garreau
Éliane Vogel-Polsky
Élisa Lemonnier
Élisabeth Boselli
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun
Élise Hap
Élise Rivet
Éva Bertóti
Éveline Garnier
Évelyne Pisier
Ólafía Jóhannsdóttir
Ľudmila Podjavorinská

While gender equality is a complex issue that extends beyond just the names of our streets, the symbolic power of toponymy cannot be ignored. As we navigate through public spaces, we internalise the values and priorities that our community has chosen to uphold. Unfortunately, the current gender gap in street names is staggering, and this issue must be addressed. One way to make progress is to call upon the toponymy commissions of our cities to recognize this problem and take action to ensure that underrepresented figures and their invaluable contributions are acknowledged in our urban space. To learn more about the specific situation in each European city, be sure to read EDJNet's in-depth stories linked below.

Read our in-depth stories

Europe
OBC Transeuropa/Sheldon.studio
The gender gap in Europe’s street names is here to stay
The unbalance has slowly started to decrease in some places, but it would take centuries to overcome it.
 
Europe
OBC Transeuropa
The top figures in the streets of European capitals
White men and a few female saints top the ranking of the figures that appear most frequently in toponyms.
 
Hungary
EUrologus/HVG
Did women live in Hungary at all?
Some Hungarian cities have no public space dedicated to women. A few exceptions exist.
 Read the original story
Italy
Sheldon.studio
Only saint women make it to Italy’s streets
Just a handful of streets in Italy’s regional capitals are dedicated to women. They were mostly religious figures.
 
Prague
Deník Referendum
What do Prague’s street names say about us?
To compensate for existing gaps, the city now encourages neutral names, but it is an illusion.
 Read the original story
Europe
OBC Transeuropa
All the world’s regions ignored by our street names
Barely 0.1% of streets in major European cities commemorate non-white personalities.
 
Zagreb
H-Alter
Women have been erased from Zagreb’s history
A municipal committee in Zagreb wants to change the situation, but a series of obstacles is slowing down progress.
 
Budapest
Atlatszo
Budapest’s changing street names
A third of Budapest’s streets have been renamed at least once in their history. A look at the reasons for it.
 
Kyiv
Texty.org
Kyiv’s street names are being heavily de-russified
Ukrainian and Western figures have now taken the place of Soviet or Russian ones in Kyiv’s street names.
 

Browse the data


Mapping Diversity is a project coordinated by OBC Transeuropa for the European Data Journalism Network, first published in March 2023. A pilot project on Italy was published in 2021.

Concept and editorial coordination: Giorgio Comai, Lorenzo Ferrari
Data collection and analysis: Giorgio Comai, Ornaldo Gjergji, Alice Corona
Design and development: Sheldon.studio
Homepage data storytelling: Alice Corona

 

The following members of the European Data Journalism Network contributed to the data collection: OBC Transeuropa, BiQdata/Gazeta Wyborcza, Denik Referendum, Divergente, El Orden Mundial, EUrologus/HVG, iMEdD, Voxeurop.

 

Street names and geographic data: © OpenStreetMap contributors, released under ODbL; © EuroGeographics for the administrative boundaries.

Information from Wikidata is available under a CC0-public domain licence.

To the extent that is possible, all remaining data and contents are released by EDJNet under a CC BY 4.0 licence.

 

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